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How Headphones Work


Headphones can be divided into headsets, in-ear headphones, and earbuds according to their wearing methods. According to their transducer types, they can be divided into moving coil headphones, moving iron headphones, isomagnetic headphones, and electrostatic headphones. Let's take a look at how the more common types of headphones work?

The working principle of the earphone - - Moving coil type: The driving unit of the moving coil earphone (the larger the diameter, the better the performance of the earphone) is composed of a small moving coil speaker, which is driven by the voice coil in the permanent magnet field, and the vibration connected to the speaker. The membrane vibrates and there is sound output. This type of earphone has high efficiency, is reliable and durable, and is often used in audio.

The working principle of the earphone - - Moving iron type: The moving iron earphone has a connecting rod with a precise structure, through which the vibration can be transmitted to the midpoint of the micro-diaphragm to make it sound. Moving iron earphones are in-ear earphones. Due to their small unit size, they can be easily placed in the ear canal. They often have a relatively soft silicone sleeve.

The working principle of earphones - isomagnetic type: the drive unit of isomagnetic earphones is equivalent to a small flat speaker. The plane voice coil is embedded in the film to make the driving force distribution uniform. The magnet is located on one side or both sides of the diaphragm, and the vibration The membrane vibrates in a magnetic field to produce sound. This type of earphone is not suitable for driving, and the efficiency is not as good as that of dynamic earphones.

The working principle of the earphone--Electrostatic type: the diaphragm of the electrostatic earphone is light and thin, which is polarized by a high DC voltage (energy is generated by the battery or by the conversion of the alternating current), and the diaphragm is located in the electrostatic field (by two fixed metal plates). composition). The working principle of electrostatic headphones is mainly to use an amplifier to amplify the audio signal into a voltage signal of hundreds of volts to drive the diaphragm to vibrate and produce sound. This type of headphones has a fast response time and low distortion rate.

The working principle of earphones - electret: Compared with electrostatic earphones, electret earphones are polarized because the diaphragm itself is polarized, or the electrostatic field emitted by the polarized material outside the diaphragm is used to polarize it. No polarizing voltage is required. The electret of this type of earphone gradually depolarizes and needs to be replaced.

The working principle of earphones - wireless cordless: wireless earphones refer to earphones that transmit signals by infrared rays, cordless earphones refer to earphones that transmit signals by radio waves, wireless cordless earphones are mainly composed of a signal transmitter and a signal receiving and amplifying device, the transmitter and the signal The source is connected to transmit the signal, and the tone can be adjusted and the sound quality can be improved by connecting to the pre-amplifier.

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